Eastern Arc Mountains

The Endowment Fund

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The Mountain Blocks:





   North Pare

   South Pare


   Taita Hills




   East Usambara

   West Usambara





West Usambara

The West Usambara Mountains are found mainly in Lushoto District, but a smaller area also occurs in Korogwe District. This mountain block ranges up to 2200m altitude. The area is very highly populated with about 18,1011 distributed over 215 villages. Most land outside of government reserves and small scared forest patches is converted to farmland.

(image: Buttress roots in the Eastern Arc Mountain Forests)

The West Usambara Mountains contain one Nature Reserve (Magamba) and 22 gazetted Forest Reserves (Mzinga, Baga – I, Baga –II, Kisima Gonja, Balangai West, Mkusu, Ndelemai, Shagayu, Shume plantation, Mweni Gombero, Kisimagonja, Mahezangulu, Bumba Mavumbi, Kikongoloi, Manka, Bombo Makole, Baghoi, Kwebagu/Hebangwe, Kwenyashu, Shambalai, Mtumbi, Kitara ridge), and 11 proposed Village Forest Reserves in Lushoto District (Mzongoti, Chambogo, Kwamongo, Kifulio, Dindira, Shukilai, Sekigoto, Yumbu, Mazashai, Tanda, Deai).

There is also one private forest, Mazumbai. The total area of reserves in Lushoto District is 38,087 ha. The mountain block also contains 7 Forest Reserves (Bumba Mavumbi, Mafi Hill, Mahenzangulu, Vugiri, Balangai East, Mgombani, Ndolwa) and 3 Private (tea estate) forests (Ambangulu, Dindira, Lutindi (KKKT)) in Korogwe District, totalling some 11,045 ha. In combination around 50,000 ha of land is under some form of protection in these mountains, much supporting natural forest and grasslands.

(image: Children in the West Usambara Mountains)

The forests of the area are diverse and range from sub-montane to upper montane in type. These forests are of a wetter type than those of the Pare Mountains further west. Common trees in sub-montane forest are Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Albizia gummifera and Allanblackia stuhlmannii .


The West Usambara Mountains have high biodiversity value and support 5 strictly endemic vertebrates and another 19 species that are only found in the Eastern Arc. There are also 27 Eastern Arc endemic trees. This high biodiversity value is also found in invertebrates and in shrubs and herbs. Although biodiversity surveys are probably not complete, some parts of the West Usambara forests have been well studied over the past 100 years.

(image: Nectophrynoides tornieri - A frog found only in Tanzania)


The major threats to the forests in the West Usambaras are fire spreading from surrounding farmlands, logging, gold mining and farmland encroachment.

(image: Gold mining in the Usambara Mountains destroying river beds and wetlands)

Downloads - West Usambara Mountains

Links - West Usambara Mountains

  • GTZ have been supporting an integrated conservation programme 'SECAP' in the West Usambara Mountains. 'Ten Million Trees Later' describes the programme and was published in 2001.