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Eastern Arc Mountains

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The Mountain Blocks:

   Mahenge

   Malundwe

   Nguu

   Nguru

   North Pare

   South Pare

   Rubeho

   Taita Hills

   Udzungwa

   Ukaguru

   Uluguru

   East Usambara

   West Usambara

 

 


 

 

East Usambara


The East Usambara Mountains are almost entirely within Muheza District in Tanga region, apart from some smaller parts in the west that fall in Korogwe District. The mountains rise to an altitude of 1,506 m at Mt Nilo. The population is 101,767 people distributed across 61 villages in the areas. Outside of reserves most of the forest has been cleared for farmland, apart from in the Derema proposed Forest Reserve and some other areas proposed as Village Forest Reserves. Some forest also remains in private land – for example in the lowland Kwamtili estate.


AMANI: Amani Nature Reserve in the East Usambara Mountain was the first nature reserve in Tanzania. With a range of accommodation available, trained guides and an information centre, it offers visitors the chance to see, feel and experience the tropical Eastern Arc Forests first-hand.

In Muheza District the East Usambaras contain one Nature Reserve (Amani), 12 Forest Reserves (Bamba, Derema, Kambai, Kwamgumi, Segoma, Semdoe, Mtai, Mlinga, Manga, Mlungui, Longuza Teak plantation), four Village Forest Reserves (Kizee, Kizangata, Mfundia, Handei), and two private forests (Magoroto and Kwamtili).  The total area is around 31,000 ha.  Most of the Nilo Nature Reserve and a part of Amani Nature Reserve fall within Korogwe District, but the only EastUsambara reserve that wholly falls within Korogwe is Bombo West with a total area of 3,523 ha.

The forests of the East Usambara Mountains range from lowland areas at c.300 m on the east side, through sub-montane forests to the montane forests of Nilo. Tree species composition of these forests varies considerably, but species such as Khaya anthotheca, Milicia excelsa are found in the lowlands and others such as Myrianthus holstii, Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Newtonia buchananii dominate at higher altitudes.

(image: Visitors information centre in Amani Nature Reserve)

Biodiversity

The East Usambara forests are globally recognised for their exceptional biodiversity importance. The mountain forests contain at least 7 strict endemic vertebrates and a further 28 species that are confined to the Eastern Arc or East Usambara lowland forests. There are also 40 Eastern Arc endemic trees. Similar high rates of endemism are also seen in invertebrate animals and plants such as shrubs and herbs. The montane forests grade into lowland forests on the eastern margin of the mountain, and these lowland forests also have exceptional biological importance.


(images: top: Leptopelis barbouri, bottom: Leptopelis barbouri - calling)


Threats

The major threats to the forests in the East Usambaras are fire spreading from surrounding farmlands, logging, gold mining and farmland encroachment (especially into ungazetted forests). There is also a serious issue of invasive species, for example of the tree Maesopsis and various shrubs, herbs and lianas.

(image: The effect of gold mining on a river bed in the East Usambara Mountain Forests)


Downloads - East Usambara Mountains


Derema Gazettement reports


Trail Guides for Amani Nature Reserve

East Usambara Conservation Area Management Programme publications

EUCAMP Working Papers


EUCAMP Technical Papers


  • 7.

Binagi, E.R. 1992. Consolidation of environmental education for adults: critique of FINNIDA-funded forestry projects in Tanzania. A case study of the East Usambara Catchment Forest Project

  • 11.

Kajembe, G.C. and Mwaseba, D. 1994. The extension and communication programme for the East Usambara Catchment Forest Project

  • 13.

Hall, J.B. 1995. Maesopsis eminii and its status in the East Usambara Mountains

  • 15.

Mnyuku, F.C.N. 1995. Report on an inventory of selected proposed forest reserves in Muheza District, Tanga Region

  • 17.

Ellman, A., Tye, A., Rwamugira, S., Mallya, B., Mahenge, F. and Mndolwa, A. 1995. Development of forest trails and drive routes in the Amani Nature Reserve

  • 18.

Ellman, A.E. 1996. Handing over the stick? Report of a village forest management and farm forestry consultancy

  • 20.

Fowler, S. and Nyambo, B. 1996. Survey of invasive weeds affecting biodiversity in the forest of the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania

  • 21

Howard, P.C. 1996. Baseline biological surveys in selected East Usambara forest reserves and forests, 1995-96 - project evaluation report

  • 22.

Woodcock, K. 1995. Indigenous knowledge and forest use: two case studies from the East Usambaras, Tanzania

  • 23.

Shaka J.M. and Msangi, A. 1996. Soils and vegetation of Bamba Ridge forest reserve, Maramba Division, Muheza District, Tanga

  • 24.

Shaka J.M. and Msangi, A. 1996. Soils and vegetation of Mlungui proposed forest reserve, Maramba Division, Muheza District, Tanga

  • 25.

Shaka J.M. and Msangi, A. 1996. Soils and vegetation of Kwamarimba and north Longuza forest reserve, Bombwera Division, Muheza District, Tanga

  • 26.

Shaka J.M., Kabushemera, W. and Msangi, A. 1996. Soils and vegetation of Kambai forest reserve, Bombwera Division, Muheza District, Tanga

  • 27.

Shelutete, M. 1996. Women in focus: report of a consultancy on conservation and women in East Usambara

  • 28.

Johansson, S.G. and Sandy, R. 1996. Protected areas and public lands - land use in the East Usambara mountains

  • 29.

Cunneyworth, P. and Stubblefield, L. 1997. Methodology report: for the East Usambara Biodiversity Survey

  • 30.

Cunneyworth, P. and Stubblefield, L. 1996. Magoroto Forest: A biodiversity survey

  • 31.

Cunneyworth, P. and Stubblefield, L. 1996. Bamba Ridge Forest Reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 32.

Cunneyworth, P. and Stubblefield, L. 1996. Mlungui proposed forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 33.

Cunneyworth, P. 1996. Kwamarimba Forest Reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 34.

Cunneyworth, P. 1996. Longuza (north) Forest Reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 35.

Cunneyworth, P. 1996. Kambai Forest Reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 36.

Shaka, J.M., W. Kabushemera and A. Msangi. 1997. Soils and vegetation of Semdoe proposed forest reserve, Bombwera Division, Muheza District, Tanga

  • 39.

Doggart, N. et al. 1999. Mtai Forest Reserve: A biodiversity survey 

  • 40.

Doggart, N. et al. 1999. Kwamgumi Forest Reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 41.

Doggart, N. et al. 1999. Manga forest reserve: A biodiversity survey 

  • 42.

Doggart, N. et al. 1999. Semdoe forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 44.

Doggart, N. 2000. The East Usambara biodiversity database: A user’s manual

  • 48.

Kobb, D. 1998. Forestry royalties in Tanga region: Paper versus reality

  • 50.

Doody, K. Z. et al. 2001. Segoma forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 51.

Doody, K. Z. et al. 2001. Mpanga village forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 52.

Doody, K. Z. et al. 2001. Amani nature reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 53.

Beharrel, N. et al. 2002. Nilo forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 54

Beharrel, N. et al. 2002. East Usambara forest monitoring - a test of procedures in Semdoe and Kwamgumi Forests Reserves

  • 55

Beharrel, N. et al. 2002. An introduction to East Usambara Biodiversity Survey field techniques (Njia za Utafiti). Swahili

  • 56

Hall, S. et al. 2002. Mlinga forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 57

Staddon, S. et al. 2002. Bombo East I forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 58

Staddon, S. et al. 2002. Bombo East II forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 59

Oliver, S. et al. 2002. Mgambo forest reserve: A biodiversity survey

  • 60

Veltheim, T. et al. 2002. Participatory Forest Inventory of proposed Mfundia Village Forest Reserve

  • 61

Veltheim, T. et al. 2002. Participatory Forest Management in the East Usambara Mountains

  • 62

Hokkanen, T. et al. 2002. Adapting UNESCO MAB-principles to East Usambara area

Other EUCAMP documents


Tropical Biological Association Project Reports

Project Reports 2003

Project Reports 2005

Links - East Usambara Mountains